MySQL: Generate column names dynamically from row values

Let’s say you have a table or the results of a query with some values by date in different rows. You want to generate column names dynamically from these dates, and show the relevant results as values for these new columns instead of values in different rows. So you basically want to transpose rows into columns and have dynamically generated column names at the same time. Unfortunately MySQL doesn’t allow the use of functions to generate column names, and as far as I know it doesn’t have a means out of the box to generate column names dynamically in general (please let me know if I am mistaken; I’m keen to learn something new), but it is definitely possible at least with a trick using prepared statements. Let me show you with an example.

I have a table, named hcu_collection, which I use to collect some data for each of a number of software licenses. The relevant columns in this example are the license_id, the collect_date and an integer column named total_hv_cores (it’s just an example from a real app so ignore the meaning of this column as it’s not important); for example I want to know the MAX(total_hv_cores) by date for each license over the past 3 days. So I can use a simple query like the following:

SELECT license_id, collect_date, MAX(total_hv_cores) cores
FROM hcu_collection
WHERE collect_date >= SUBDATE(CURDATE(), 2)
GROUP BY license_id, collect_date
ORDER BY collect_date ASC, collect_hour ASC;

which produces these results:

| license_id | collect_date | cores |
| 18 | 2015-12-04 | 1108 |
| 67 | 2015-12-04 | 436 |
| 102 | 2015-12-04 | 140 |
| 12174 | 2015-12-10 | 78 |
| 12380 | 2015-12-10 | 624 |

What I want instead is a table that looks like the following, for example for the past 3 days:

| license_id | Tue 08/12 | Wed 09/12 | Thu 10/12 |
| 2 | 238 | 238 | 246 |
| 3 | 60 | 68 | 68 |
| 4 | 12 | 16 | 12 |
| 7 | 212 | 212 | 220 |

As said I am not aware if MySQL already has some means to achieve this, so the way I have done it is by generating a query dynamically which, when executed, will then generate the column names from the dates as I want.

The first step is to create a temporary table with the results from the original query, for convenience, since we are going to need these results more than once in the query that will be generated dynamically.


SELECT license_id, collect_date, MAX(total_hv_cores) cores
FROM hcu_collection
WHERE collect_date >= SUBDATE(CURDATE(), 2)
GROUP BY license_id, collect_date
ORDER BY collect_date ASC, collect_hour ASC;

Next, we need to generate a new query dynamically. Here’s an example:

SELECT license_id, ',cores_by_dates,'
FROM tmp_results
GROUP BY license_id
ORDER BY license_id'
INTO @query
SELECT GROUP_CONCAT(CONCAT('IFNULL(MAX(CASE WHEN collect_date=''',actual_date,''' THEN cores END), ''-'') AS "',col_name,'"')) cores_by_dates
SELECT actual_date, DATE_FORMAT(actual_date,'%a %d/%m') AS col_name
FROM (SELECT DISTINCT collect_date AS actual_date FROM tmp_results) AS dates
) dates_with_col_names
) result;

The important bit is

SELECT GROUP_CONCAT(CONCAT('IFNULL(MAX(CASE WHEN collect_date=''',actual_date,''' THEN cores END), ''-'') AS "',col_name,'"')) cores_by_dates
SELECT actual_date, DATE_FORMAT(actual_date,'%a %d/%m') AS col_name
FROM (SELECT DISTINCT collect_date AS actual_date FROM tmp_results) AS dates
) dates_with_col_names

which generates something like:

IFNULL(MAX(CASE WHEN collect_date='2015-12-08' THEN cores END), '-') AS "Tue 08/12",IFNULL(MAX(CASE WHEN collect_date='2015-12-09' THEN cores END), '-') AS "Wed 09/12",IFNULL(MAX(CASE WHEN collect_date='2015-12-10' THEN cores END), '-') AS "Thu 10/12"

We save this new query in @query so that we can use it to prepare a statement:

PREPARE statement FROM @query;

Last, we just need to execute it:

EXECUTE statement;

This shows the results I want, with the dates as column names. Don’t forget to deallocate the prepared statement after fetching the results:


Note: depending on how many dates you use to generate the columns, you may exceed the limit allowed for GROUP_CONCAT‘s length (default is 1024 bytes). So you may need to add something like

SET SESSION group_concat_max_len = 1000000;

before the dynamic generation of the query.

Hope it can be useful to someone.

Easier backups with duplicity and xtrabackup

A little while ago I wrote a couple of scripts to take backups with duplicity and xtrabackup more easily; I am a little allergic to all the options and arguments you can use with both duplicity and xtrabackup, so these scripts use simple configuration files instead.

You can find these scripts on Github at


Xtrabackup is a great tool for taking backups (both full and incremental) of your MySQL databases without bringing them offline. When you first launch the script – admin-scripts/backup/ – without arguments, it will generate the simple configuration file as ~/.xtrabackup.config, containing the following configuration settings – you only need to set the MySQL credentials, customise the paths of source and destination, and choose how many backup chains to keep:


A backup chain is as usual made of one full backup and subsequent incrementals. The script – admin-scripts/backup/ accepts a single argument when you are taking backups, either full or incr. As these may suggest, in the first case a full backup will be taken, while the second case it will be an incremental. Backups are stored in the destination directory with the structure below:

├── full
│ ├── 2014-03-04_20-39-39
│ ├── 2014-03-09_02-00-04
│ ├── 2014-03-16_02-00-01
│ └── 2014-03-23_02-00-02
└── incr
├── 2014-03-04_20-39-53
├── 2014-03-04_20-41-21
├── 2014-03-05_02-00-02
├── 2014-03-05_13-00-02
├── 2014-03-06_02-00-07

I choose to store the incrementals separately from the full backups so to always have full backups ready for a simple copy if needed, but restoring from incrementals will work just fine. In order to restore, you can choose from any of the backups available – either full or incremental. To see the list of all the backups available you can use the list argument, which shows something like this:

> admin-scripts/backup/ list
Loading configuration from /root/.xtrabackup.config.
Available backup chains (from oldest to latest):

Backup chain 1:

Backup chain 2:

Backup chain 3:
Full: 2014-03-16_02-00-01
Incremental: 2014-03-16_13-00-01
Incremental: 2014-03-17_02-00-02
Incremental: 2014-03-21_13-00-01
Incremental: 2014-03-22_02-00-01
Incremental: 2014-03-22_13-00-02
Backup chain 4:
Full: 2014-03-23_02-00-02
Incremental: 2014-03-23_13-00-01
Incremental: 2014-03-24_02-00-03
Incremental: 2014-03-24_13-00-01
Incremental: 2014-03-25_02-00-01
Incremental: 2014-03-25_13-00-02

Latest backup available:
Incremental: 2014-03-25_13-00-02

Then, to restore any of the backups available you can run the script with the restore argument, e.g.

admin-scripts/backup/ restore 2014-03-25_02-00-01 <destination directory>

Once the restore is complete, the final result will be a destination directory ready for use with MySQL, so all you need to do at this stage (as the script will suggest) is:

  • stop MySQL
  • replace the content of MySQL’s datadir with the contents of the destination directory you’ve used for the restore
  • ensure the MySQL datadir is owned by the mysql user
  • start MySQL again

MySQL should happily work again with the restored data.


The other script is a useful wrapper which makes it a bit easier to take backups of data with duplicity; like the other script, this script also uses a configuration file instead of lots of options and arguments, and this configuration file is generated as ~/.duplicity.config when you first run the script with no arguments. The content of this configuration file is as follows:

INCLUDE=(/backup /etc /home /root /usr/local/configuration /var/log /var/lib/mysql /var/www)




# Set ENCRYPT_KEY if you want to use GPG pub key encryption. Otherwise duplicity will just use symmetric encryption.

# Optionally use a different key for signing

COMPRESSION_LEVEL=6 # 1-9; 0 disables compression; it currently works only if encryption is enabled

VERBOSITY=4 # 0 Error, 2 Warning, 4 Notice (default), 8 Info, 9 Debug (noisiest)

# Comment out the following if you want to run one or more scripts before duplicity backup.

# Comment out the following if you want to run one or more scripts after duplicity backup.

Most of these settings should be self-explanatory. backups_repository uses by default duplicity’s rsync backend, so of course you need to have SSH access to the destination server. max_volume_size: duplicity automatically splits the backup into volumes and the script will use settings that have duplicity generate one volume while the previous one is being asynchronously transferred to the destination. This should make backups faster. The ideal value for max_vol_size is really difficult to determine as it depends on many things, but in my case I have found that a value of 250 with the other settings I use for compression and encryption, makes backups fairly fast. encryption of course enables/disables the encryption of the backup; if you are doing on site backup to servers you own and that noone else controls, then I’d disable this option so to make backups quicker. Otherwise I recommend to enable it if others have access to the backup files. Encryption can be done both with (GPG) keys, or without keys, using symmetric encryption with a passphrase. Then, you can set the compression level; I’d recommend the value 6 as from my tests higher compression slows down backups for little gain. As the comment in the configuration file suggests, compression is currently available only when encryption is also enabled.

Lastly, as you can see you can choose to run other scripts before and/or after the backup with duplicity is performed. In the configuration above you can also see that I normally run the backup with the xtrabackup script first, so that the backup taken with duplicity also includes the latest MySQL backup. I find this pretty useful. Like for the other script, you need to specify the full or incr argument when taking backups; this argument will automatically be passed to the scripts specified in run_before and run_after so, for example, when taking an incremental backup with duplicity, an incremental backup with xtrabackup is taken first.

Restoring latest backup available


duplicity -v debug rsync://user@host//backup_directory <destination>

Note: Duplicity will not overwrite an existing file.

duplicity – other useful commands

Restoring from backups with duplicity is a little more straightforward than backing up, so I haven’t added any commands for this in the script really. However I’ll add here, for reference, some useful commands you may likely need when restoring or else directly with duplicity. These are examples assuming you use duplicity with symmetric encryption, in which case you need to have the PASSPHRASE environment variable set and available:

export PASSPHRASE=... # the passphrase you've used in the configuration file; you'll need this will all

If you add these commands in some other scripts, remember to unset this variable with

Listing available backups
duplicity -v debug collection-status rsync://user@host//backup_directory
Listing all files in current backup
duplicity -v debug list-current-files rsync://user@host//backup_directory
Restoring by date / specific files (e.g. 3 days ago)
duplicity -v debug -t 3D --file-to-restore FILENAME rsync://user@host//backup_directory <destination>


duplicity -v debug --restore-time 1308655646 rsync://user@host//backup_directory <destination> (unix time)
duplicity -v debug --restore-time 2011-06-21T11:27:26+02:00 rsync://user@host//backup_directory <destination>

Note: timestamps shown when listing available backups are in already in timezone, while the time on the server is in UTC. So a backup made e.g. on 24/2/2014 at 02:00 on the server means it will be listed as Mon Feb 24 04:00:35 2014. Restoring this backup means using the timestamp xxxx-xx-xxT02:00:00+02:00

If you are looking to use free tools, these scripts and commands should have your backup needs on servers covered in most cases.

MySQL Cluster with Percona/Galera

Why a MySQL cluster

I have been using MySQL for many years as the RDBMS of choice for most applications; it does have its quirks, and it may lack some features I wish it had (and that other relational databases such as PostgreSQL have), but generally speaking it works fairly well and has good performance and reliability; also, I am anyway more familiar with it than with other databases. While these days the buzz is mainly for the so called NoSQL/schemaless/document-store/key-value-store/you-name-it alternatives, in my opinion relational databases are still a good option in many cases and are often also easier to use.

For a while the typical solution I used to rely on to scale MySQL databases was based on asynchronous replication, partitioning, and sharding, depending on the case. However I got tired of slaves going out of sync, and sharding can be a very good or a very bad idea depending on how it is done and or how well you can guess and plan in advance how the data will be used. In the past I’ve also tried the ‘standard’ MySQL Cluster, multi master replication setups, and various proxying configurations; however none of these were 100% reliable or easy enough to setup and maintain. About a year ago I started playing with a different type of MySQL cluster based on the synchronous replication provided by the Galera plugin (byCodership – who are also based here in Finland); Galera enables virtually synchronous replication to allow for reading from/writing to any node; furthermore, it automatically handles node provisioning. Better performance than the ‘standard’ MySQL cluster, no more slaves out of sync, true multi master replication and scalability out of the box with very little maintenance. Yay!

Rather than using the plugin directly with the standard ‘distribution’ of MySQL, I prefer using Percona‘s own distribution which includes many optimisations and also the XtraDB storage engine, a drop in replacement for InnoDB that performs a lot better in many scenarios; in addition, Percona XtraDB Cluster also includes the Galera plugin, so you are ready to configure a new MySQL cluster in a very short time. You can find instructions on how to setup a MySQL cluster on Percona’s website as well, but here I’d like to add a few slightly different instructions on how to use packages you can download rather than using the repositories for your Linux distribution provided by Percona. The reason I prefer to use these packages is that in a couple cases I have noticed that the packages available for download are newer that those you’d install from the repositories. I will also be covering some firewalling and proxying configuration so to have a secure and highly available MySQL cluster.

I will assume here you want to set up a complete MySQL cluster from scratch; you can skip some steps as you wish if that’s not your case. I will also assume here you already have linux boxes with at least the basic OS up to date; the following instructions will work as they are with Debian based distros (I normally use Ubuntu).

SSH setup

First things first, let’s lock down each node by configuring SSH authentication and the firewall. We need to configure public key authentication and disable the weaker password based authentication; still from your client computer, copy your public key to your new server; there are various ways to do this but perhaps the easiest is with the utility ssh-copy-id already available with most distros (if you are on OSX and use Homebrew, you can install it with brew install ssh-copy-id). Assuming your first node is called something like node1:

ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/ node1

Test now the pub key authentication by SSH’ing into the box; you shouldn’t be required to enter your password this time. Next, if all looks good, edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config and change the port number defined at the top of the file with the port you want to use; then uncomment the line that has the setting PasswordAuthentication yes and change that setting to no so to force authentication with public key, which is more secure. Now restart SSH with

service ssh restart

making sure you don’t close your current terminal session until you have successfully tested the new configuration.
Next, from your client computer, edit ~/.ssh/config and paste the following:

Host node1 # or whatever
HostName … # ip or hostname of the box
User … # user account you'll be using on the box
Port … # custom port

Replace the placeholder text with the actual IP of the server, the username you’ll be using on the box and the SSH port you’ve chosen earlier; I recommend using a different port rather than the default one (22). Try now again to SSH into the box with just

ssh node1

You should be logged in if all went OK.

Firewall with iptables

For now, we’ll lock down the box with a restrictive iptables configuration; later we’ll open some port required for the MySQL cluster to function. Edit /etc/iptables.rules and paste the following:

# Generated by iptables-save v1.4.4 on Tue Feb 19 23:11:06 2013
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -d ! -i lo -j DROP
-A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m tcp --dport <your SSH port> -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-port-unreachable
-A FORWARD -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-port-unreachable
# Completed on Tue Feb 19 23:11:06 2013

this is the basic configuration I usually start with, then I open ports or make changes as required. To apply these firewall rules right away, run

iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.rules

To ensure these rules are also applied each time the server starts, edit /etc/network/interfaces and add post-up iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.rules:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
address ...
netmask ...
broadcast ...
network ...
gateway ...
post-up iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.up.rules

Of course make sure you specify your correct network settings here.


I install the same dependencies required when installing Percona XtraDB MySQL Cluster from source code, so to be sure nothing is missed.

apt-get install curl build-essential flex bison automake autoconf \
bzr libtool cmake libaio-dev libncurses-dev zlib1g-dev libdbi-perl \
libnet-daemon-perl libplrpc-perl libaio1

There’s one more dependency you need, but it is only available from Percona’s repositories, so we need to add them to apt’s sources:

gpg --keyserver hkp:// --recv-keys 1C4CBDCDCD2EFD2A
gpg -a --export CD2EFD2A | sudo apt-key add -

Then edit /etc/apt/sources.list and append the following lines to enable these repositories:

deb lucid main
deb-src lucid main

Lastly, to install the remaining dependency:

apt-get update
apt-get install libmysqlclient18

Installing the Percona packages

It’s time now to install the Percona packages; you’ll need to install both packages for the Percona server and for Xtrabackup, a hot backup tool also from Percona which I cover in more detail in another post. You will need Xtrabackup if you use this tool as the strategy to use for the provisioning of nodes in the MySQL cluster – more on this later.

You can download the packages to install the Percona server from here and the one required to install Xtrabackup from here. At the moment of this writing, the latest versions available are 5.5.29-23.7.2-389 for Percona server and 2.0.5-499 for Xtrabackup. I am using Ubuntu Lucid x86-amd64 so in the following example I am downloading the packages for this version:

cd /usr/local/src


Then, install these packages and stop the MySQL/Percona server since we need to configure the server as the first node of the cluster.

dpkg -i percona*.deb
service mysql stop

MySQL configuration

Next, edit the MySQL configuration at /etc/mysql/my.cnf and paste the content of this gist which already includes the required configuration for the MySQL cluster nodes. An important note is in order here: the configuration in that gist is what I am currently using with a small MySQL cluster in which each node has 8 GB of ram, so you may want to tweak some settings depending on your case. I have included them as they have worked pretty well for me. You could just include the settings in the Galera synchronous replication section and you’d be fine as far as the configuration of the MySQL cluster is concerned. So it’s up to you if you want to try the other settings too.

Notes on some of the settings in the gist:

  • max-connections: this setting really depends on many things. I’ve set it to 500 but the correct value depends on how you will be using MySQL;
  • transaction-isolation: MySQL’s default setting is REPEATABLE-READ which isn’t optimal; I prefer READ-COMMITTED (which happens to be the default setting in PostgreSQL instead);
  • skip-name-resolve: prevents the server from performing a DNS lookup each time a client connects to it, speeding up connections a little bit;
  • innodb_support_xa: this is required by the Galera replication;
  • innodb_import_table_from_xtrabackup: it allows restores of single tables by replacing the tablespace even at runtime, which can be pretty handy when you don’t need to restore the whole database;
  • innodb_log_file_size: I can’t remember exactly how I determined the value of 50M but the important thing to keep in mind concerning this setting is that you won’t be able to use a datadir with InnoDB logs created with a different value (so you’d have to delete the existing logs and restart MySQL if you change the value);
  • innodb_file_per_table: this is a recommended setting for two reasons: it uses disk space better by storing the data in separate files for the various tables vs a single gigantic file that can become bloated overtime; it also allows for restores of single tables together with the previous setting;

As for the Galera synchronous replication section, you should basically use those settings as they are apart from:

  • server-id: this has to be a unique id for each node; you can choose any arbitrary value;
  • wsrep_cluster_name: of course this is the name you want to give to the MySQL cluster; it’s important that all nodes in the cluster have the same value;
  • wsrep_node_name: this as well should be different for each node; I usually use names such as db1,db2,…,dbN or node1,node2,…,nodeN;
  • wsrep_slave_threads: the recommended setting is 4 threads per CPU core;
  • wsrep_cluster_address: this very important setting determines the role of a node in the MySQL cluster; as we’ll see later, this should be set to gcomm:// on the first node when bootstrapping a new cluster. Once the cluster is ready and all the nodes have been configured, it is convenient to have the setting with value gcomm://db1,db2,…,dbN on each node instead; this makes it so a node, when restarted or rebuilt, will automatically try one node per time in the list to find a node that is available and ‘synced’, so that node can become its ‘donor’ when the first node joins or rejoins the cluster;
  • wsrep_sst_method: this determines the synchronisation strategy to use when a node joins or rejoins the MySQL cluster after being offline for maintenance or else; at the moment I tend to use the rsync strategy as it seems to be somewhat more stable, but another good option is Percona’s own xtrabackup; the main difference is that with the rsync strategy both joiner and donor are seen as unavailable during the transfer of data, while with xtrabackup the donor is supposed to be available. I haven’t yet tried this though.

So go ahead with bootstrapping the MySQL cluster with the first node you’ve just set up, by setting wsrep_cluster_address to gcomm://. Then restart MySQL, which should now apply all the settings in the /etc/mysql/my.cnf configuration file. Before restarting though, if you have set innodb_log_file_size to some custom value, you’ll need to delete the existing InnoDB log files otherwise MySQL won’t start. MySQL’s datadir is by default /var/lib/mysql so to delete the old log files you can run:

rm /var/lib/mysql/ib_logfile*
service mysql restart

If MySQL fails to restart, try starting it “manually” with

mysqld -u mysql

which will show information that may useful to debug the problem. Otherwise, the first node is now ready and you can go ahead with adding a node per time – at least two more nodes for an optimal configuration.

Adding nodes to the MySQL cluster

Adding more nodes to the cluster is almost an identical process to that required to set up the very first node, apart from a few key differences. In the MySQL’s configuration for each new node, make sure that

  • server-id and wsrep_node_name have different and unique values, i.e. not in use by any other nodes in the MySQL cluster;
  • wsrep_cluster_address: it should be set to the address of the first node or anyway one node already synced and available to be used as donor, so the joiner can receive data from it.

Having updated the MySQL configuration, stop MySQL for now on the joiner node(s), and update the the firewall configuration on all nodes so that they can eventually exchange data with each other. I usually prefer using hostnames or aliases rather than IP addresses in iptables’ configuration, since it’s easier to see at a glance what each rule is for. So open /etc/hosts on each node and add entries for the IPs in use by the other nodes. For example, if I am on node1 in a 3-nodes MySQL cluster, I’d change the /etc/hosts file so it looks something like localhost node1.localdomain node1

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1 localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters node2 node3

The two lines at the bottom are the important ones (of course make sure you specify the correct IP addresses). Next, we need to update the firewall rules. Open again /etc/iptables.rules and add the following rules before the -A input -j REJECT rule:

-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --source node2 --dport 4567 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --source node2 --dport 4568 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --source node2 --dport 4444 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --source node2 --dport 3306 -j ACCEPT

Explanation: 4567 is the port another node will knock to to check whether this node is synced and available to become its donor; 4568 is unsed when an incremental state transfer (IST) is possible as opposed to a snapshot state trasnfer (SST) which basically is the copy of all of the data – whether IST is possible or not depends on how much the data on the joiner differsfrom the data on the donor; 4444 is the port used with the rsync strategy, while 3306 is of course the default port at which MySQL listens for clients.

In the example above, I was on node1 so I added rules for node2. It is important to have those four rules replicated for each of the other nodes in the MySQL cluster, so to allow each node to exchange data with any of the other nodes. To apply the changes right away, run

iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.rules

Done this, you can start MySQL on one joiner per time and the it will start receiving data from the donor you have specified in my.cnf. Once all the nodes are up and running and synced, I recommend you set wsrep_cluster_address to gcomm://node1,node2,..nodeN. This way you don’t have to change that setting each time you take a node offline and then online again for maintenance or else, because the joiner will automatically find the first node in that list which is available to provide it with the data. If all went well, when you start a new node just configured you can see it becomes a joiner and receives data from the donor by watching the MySQL related processes (e.g. you could monitor this with watch “ps waux | grep mysql”):

root 5167 0.1 0.1 19396 1952 pts/2 S+ 12:04 0:00 /bin/bash /etc/init.d/mysql start
root 5195 0.1 0.0 4108 728 pts/2 S+ 12:04 0:00 /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe
mysql 5837 0.5 3.3 245612 33980 pts/2 Sl+ 12:04 0:00 /usr/sbin/mysqld --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --plugin-dir=/usr/lib/mysql/plugin --user=mysql --log-error=/var/lib/mysql/node3.err --pid-file=/var/lib/mysql/node3
mysql 5884 0.0 0.0 4108 612 pts/2 S+ 12:04 0:00 sh -c wsrep_sst_rsync --role 'joiner' --address '' --auth '' --datadir '/var/lib/mysql/' --defaults-file '/etc/mysql/my.cnf' --parent '5837'
mysql 5886 0.2 0.1 19248 1764 pts/2 S+ 12:04 0:00 /bin/bash -ue /usr//bin/wsrep_sst_rsync --role joiner --address --auth --datadir /var/lib/mysql/ --defaults-file /etc/mysql/my.cnf --parent 5837
mysql 5909 0.0 0.0 10984 676 ? Ss 12:04 0:00 rsync --daemon --port 4444 --config /var/lib/mysql//rsync_sst.conf

In the example above I was using the rsync strategy; the output would look slightly different if you used the xtrabackup strategy instead. This is instead you would see on the donor while SST is happening:

root 746 0joiner.0 0.0 4108 688 ? S 11:38 0:00 /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe
mysql 1448 0.1 10.6 1118380 108624 ? Sl 11:38 0:03 /usr/sbin/mysqld --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --plugin-dir=/usr/lib/mysql/plugin --user=mysql --log-error=/var/lib/mysql/node2.err --pid-file=/var/lib/mysql/node2
mysql 6938 0.0 0.0 4108 616 ? S 12:22 0:00 sh -c wsrep_sst_rsync --role 'donor' --address '' --auth '(null)' --socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' --datadir '/var/lib/mysql/' --defaults-fil
mysql 6939 1.0 0.1 17732 1592 ? S 12:22 0:00 /bin/bash -ue /usr//bin/wsrep_sst_rsync --role donor --address --auth (null) --socket /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock --datadir /var/lib/mysql/ --defa
mysql 6949 33.0 joiner 0.1 21112 1636 ? R 12:22 0:00 rsync --archive --no-times --ignore-times --inplace --delete --quiet --whole-file -f + /ib_lru_dump -f + /ibdata* -f + /ib_logfile* -f + */ -f -! */* /var/lib/mysql/ rsync:/

Once you have configured all the nodes your shiny new MySQL cluster is ready to be used as it is -yay!- but in order to take full advantage of it you will need to split reads/and writes either in your application or with a load balancer such as haproxy, which I cover next.

Load balancing and failover

Once you have two or (better) more nodes in the MySQL cluster, you could already use it as is and split connections or reads/writes at application level; however it’s perhaps easiest to use something like haproxy that will handle this for you and will also ensure nodes that are not in sync are ignored. Setting this up is quite easy; first, unless you have haproxy already installed, you can install it with

apt-get install haproxy

Next, edit /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg and paste the following lines:

listen mysql-cluster
mode tcp
balance leastconn
option tcpka
option httpchk

server db1 node1:3306 check port 9200 inter 5000 rise 3 fall 3 maxconn 400
server db2 node2:3306 check port 9200 inter 5000 rise 3 fall 3 maxconn 400
server db3 node3:3306 check port 9200 inter 5000 rise 3 fall 3 maxconn 400

Ensure you have listed all the nodes; do not restart haproxy yet. First, we need to configure a service on each node that haproxy will use to monitor the nodes and automatically ignore nodes that are offline or not in sync with the rest of the MySQL cluster. This is typically done with xinetd, although there are certainly other ways to achieve the same result. If you don’t have xinetd installed yet, run apt-get install xinetd, then create the new file /etc/xinetd.d/mysqlchk, if it doesn’t exist yet (it appears that this configuration is now done automatically in the newest version of Percona MySQL cluster) and paste the following:

# default: on
# description: mysqlchk
service mysqlchk
# this is a config for xinetd, place it in /etc/xinetd.d/
disable = no
flags = REUSE
socket_type = stream
port = 9200
wait = no
user = nobody
server = /usr/bin/clustercheck
log_on_failure += USERID
only_from =
# recommended to put the IPs that need
# to connect exclusively (security purposes)
per_source = UNLIMITED

Next, edit /usr/bin/clustercheck which may exist or not depending on the version of the MySQL cluster you have set up. If the file exists, just ensure that the variables MYSQL_USERNAME and MYSQL_PASSWORD are set to the correct MySQL credentials. If the file doesn’t elready xist instead, create it and paste the following:


# Perform the query to check the wsrep_local_state
WSREP_STATUS=`mysql --user=${MYSQL_USERNAME} --password=${MYSQL_PASSWORD} -e "SHOW STATUS LIKE 'wsrep_local_state';" 2>${ERR_FILE} | awk '{if (NR!=1){print $2}}' 2>${ERR_FILE}`

if [[ "${WSREP_STATUS}" == "4" ]] || [[ "${WSREP_STATUS}" == "2" && ${AVAILABLE_WHEN_DONOR} == 1 ]]
# Percona XtraDB Cluster node local state is 'Synced' => return HTTP 200
/bin/echo -en "HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n"
/bin/echo -en "Content-Type: text/plain\r\n"
/bin/echo -en "\r\n"
/bin/echo -en "Percona XtraDB Cluster Node is synced.\r\n"
/bin/echo -en "\r\n"
exit 0
# Percona XtraDB Cluster node local state is not 'Synced' => return HTTP 503
/bin/echo -en "HTTP/1.1 503 Service Unavailable\r\n"
/bin/echo -en "Content-Type: text/plain\r\n"
/bin/echo -en "\r\n"
/bin/echo -en "Percona XtraDB Cluster Node is not synced.\r\n"
/bin/echo -en "\r\n"
exit 1

If you run /usr/bin/clustercheck manually on an active, synced node, you’ll see the following output as expected:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/plain

Percona XtraDB MySQL Cluster Node is synced.

Now restart xinetd with /etc/init.d/xinetd restart and then test that the script can also be run via the port specified in the xinetd configuration (9200):

root@node1:~# telnet localhost 9200
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/plain

Percona XtraDB MySQL Cluster Node is synced.

Connection closed by foreign host.

Now you can reload haproxy as well with

service haproxy reload

and ensure your applications connect to the load balancer instead of any nodes of the MySQL cluster directly. One last thing I’d like to suggest which I find very useful, is to use haproxy’s web interface to check the status of nodes, especially when you take one node offline for maintenance and want to check that it rejoins the cluster correctly when that’s done. Edit /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg again and add the following lines (ensure you use a good combination of username and password and optionally use a custom port):

listen stats
mode http
option httpchk
balance roundrobin
stats uri /
stats refresh 10s
stats realm Haproxy\ Statistics
stats auth username:password

Once you reload haproxy again, you will be able to see the status of the MySQL cluster’s nodes from the UI at the port specified (8282 or whichever you have chosen):



Testing the MySQL cluster is quite easy: just take a node offline or kill -9 MySQL and delete all thata on a node, and see what happens when you restart MySQL :p


I think that despite both Galera and Percona XtraDB Cluster are relatively new, this combination is definitely the best setup I have worked with so far for MySQL databases; it’s nice to have the peace of mind that nodes can be taken offline at any time for maintenance and have them resynced automatically without downtime, and at the same time scale reads and to some extent writes too. I will certainly play again with alternatives such as MongoDB and similar, but I have been using a MySQL cluster with Percona/Galera in production for a while now and it’s been pretty stable requiring very little maintenance, so that’s the reason why for the time being I will stick to MySQL rather than rethinking the applications I am working on so to adapt them to other solutions. I will, however, very likely look into similar clustering solutions for PostgreSQL since I am getting more and more interested in this database these days.

I would be interested to hear others’ experiences with a MySQL cluster with Percona/Galera or any alternatives that have worked well for them.

Recovering from MySQL replication stops caused by failing statements

Sometimes it happens that the MySQL replication stops because some statements received from the master fail when replayed on a slave. In such cases, depending on the nature of the failure you may need to rebuild the slave from scratch using a backup from the master (I’d recommend Percona’s Xtrabackup for this, as explained in an earlier post), or try to re-sync the slave using something like pt-table-sync again from Percona (these tools were originally known as Maatkit).

Luckily, however, this isn’t always the case as sometimes the failing statements don’t affect the data or might only affect data that isn’t important or is removed frequently (for example tables containing temporary data); in such cases then you may not need to rebuild the slave or re-sync with the Percona tools (which perform a time consuming comparison operation -especially on large tables- and might cause high load on both master and slave, up to causing locks and various issues depending on the usage of the servers at the time and the resources available); you can instead get the slave up and running again very quickly by simply skipping the failing statements, provided that these statements can be safely ignored as well as any data they might affect.

This can be done by temporarily stopping the slave, then instructing MySQL to skip one or more statements received from the master, and eventually starting the slave again. For example, let’s assume that we find out that the replication is temporarily stopped due to some statement causing errors:

mysql> show slave status \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Slave_IO_Running: Yes
Slave_SQL_Running: No
Last_Errno: (some error code)
Last_Error: (description)
Seconds_Behind_Master: NULL
Last_SQL_Errno: (some error code)
Last_SQL_Error: Error ... (description)
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Note the Slave_SQL_Running status, the error details, and Seconds_Behind_Master.

To fix you’d stop the slave now, and tell MySQL to skip at least the next statement (which we know for sure that it is failing) by setting the global variable SQL_SLAVE_SKIP_COUNTER. You’d then start the slave again:

mysql> stop slave;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.10 sec)

mysql> set global SQL_SLAVE_SKIP_COUNTER = 1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> start slave;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

Assuming, as in the example, that only one statement is failing, by skipping that single statement the slave can happily start to replicate again:

mysql> show slave status \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Slave_IO_Running: Yes
Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
Last_Errno: 0
Seconds_Behind_Master: 5341
Last_SQL_Errno: 0
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Done this, you’d only need to wait for the slave to catch up with the master, and how long that’ll take depends on how long the replication has been in a stopped state.

If only one statement were failing, you’d be lucky. At times there can be many more failing statements really depending on the replicated databases and their usage. So in these cases you could still skip one statement per time until the replication is fine again, but you wouldn’t have any way to know how many of the next statements received from the master will eventually fail. Another option is to set SQL_SLAVE_SKIP_COUNTER to a value greater than 1, so that MySQL will skip multiple statements at once, but since you don’t know how many statements will fail, there’s the risk that some other statements that otherwise wouldn’t fail will also be missed by the slave affecting some important data.

You can avoid this by still skipping one failing statement per time, but rather than doing this manually you can automate this with very simple shell commands. For starters, let’s save somehow the credentials to connect to the MySQL instance, e.g. in some variables:


Next, let’s save with an alias a simple command line to find out whether the slave is currently running:

alias slave-check='mysql -u$MYSQL_USER -p$MYSQL_PASSWORD -e "show slave status \G" | \
grep "Slave_SQL_Running: Yes" | \
wc -l'

So now we can just run the command slave-check and that’ll return either 1 or 0 depending on whether the replication is running or not. Similarly, we can save with another alias a command line that tells MySQL to stop the slave, skip one statement and restart the slave:

alias skip-one='mysql -u$MYSQL_USER -p$MYSQL_PASSWORD \
-e "set global SQL_SLAVE_SKIP_COUNTER = 1; \
stop slave; \
start slave; \
select sleep(1);"'

So we can just run skip-one to automate this in a very simple way. Note that I’ve added a select sleep(1) query too since sometimes the slave might appear as running for a brief time after skipping one statement, although the slave is stopped again soon after due to other failing statements.

Finally, we can save a third command line that keeps skipping failing statements one per time until the replication is running again:

alias skip-failing-statements="while [ `slave_check` = 0 ]; do skip-one; done"

If you save these simple commands in your shell profile for example, you can recover a stopped slave (when possible) by simply running skip-failing-statements, That’s it. It’s a stupid simple tip but it might be useful to someone who is new to MySQL replication or isn’t too familiar with the command line.

Resque: automatically kill stuck workers and retry failed jobs

Resque is a great piece of software by Github that makes it really easy to perform some operations (‘jobs’) asynchronously and in a distributed way across any number of workers. It’s written in Ruby and backed by the uber cool Redis key-value data store, so it’s efficient and scalable. I’ve been using Resque in production for a couple years now after it replaced Delayed Job in my projects, and love it. If your projects do something that could be done asynchronously, your really should check it out if you haven’t yet.

At OnApp we’ve been using Resque for a while to process background jobs of various types, with great results: in a few months, we’ve processed a little over 160 million jobs (at the moment of this writing), and out of this many only 43K jobs have been counted as failed so far. However, many of these failed jobs have been retried successfully at a successive attempt, so the number of jobs that actually failed is a lot smaller, perhaps a very few thousands.

Out of 160M+ jobs, it’s a very small percentage of failures. But despite the system, for the most part, has been rock solid so far, jobs can still fail every now and then depending on the nature of the jobs, excessive load on the worker servers, temporary networking and timeout issues or design related issues such as race conditions and alike. Sometimes, you will also find that workers can get “stuck”, requiring (usually) manually intervention (as in: kill / restart the workers, manually sort out failed jobs).

So I wanted to share a simple script I am using in production to automatically find and kill these “stuck” workers and then retry any jobs that are found as ‘failed’ due to the workers having been killed, or else. The purpose is to keep workers running and minimise the need for manual intervention when something goes wrong.

Please note that I use resque-pool to manage a pool of workers more efficiently on each worker server. Therefore if you manage your workers in a different way, you may need to adapt the script to your configuration.

You can find the little script in this gist, but I’ll briefly explain here how it works. It’s very simple, really. First, the script looks for the processes that are actually working off jobs:

root@worker1:/scripts# ps -eo pid,command | grep [r]esque
10088 resque-pool-master: managing [10097, 10100, 10107, 10113, 10117, 10123, 10138, 10160, 10167, 10182, 10195]
10097 resque-1.20.0: Forked 16097 at 1337878130
10100 resque-1.20.0: Forked 16154 at 1337878131
10107 resque-1.20.0: Waiting for cdn_transactions_collection
10113 resque-1.20.0: Waiting for usage_data_collection
10117 resque-1.20.0: Waiting for usage_data_collection
10123 resque-1.20.0: Waiting for check_client_balance
10138 resque-1.20.0: Waiting for check_client_balance
10160 resque-1.20.0: Waiting for geo_location
10167 resque-1.20.0: Forked 16160 at 1337878131
10182 resque-1.20.0: Forked 16163 at 1337878132
10195 resque-1.20.0: Waiting for services_coordination
16097 resque-1.20.0: Processing push_notifications since 1337878130
16163 resque-1.20.0: Processing push_notifications since 1337878132

This is an example from one of our worker servers. The Processing processes are those that are actually working off jobs, so these are the ones we are after since these are the processes that can get “stuck” sometimes for a reason or another. So the script first looks for these processes only, ignoring the rest:

root@worker1:/scripts# ps -eo pid,command | grep [r]esque | grep Processing
18956 resque-1.20.0: Processing push_notifications since 1337878334
19034 resque-1.20.0: Processing push_notifications since 1337878337
19052 resque-1.20.0: Processing usage_data_collection since 1337878338
19061 resque-1.20.0: Processing usage_data_collection since 1337878338
19064 resque-1.20.0: Processing usage_data_collection since 1337878339
19066 resque-1.20.0: Processing usage_data_collection since 1337878339

Next, the script loops through these processes, and looks for those that have been running for over 50 seconds. You may want to change this threshold, but in our case all jobs should usually complete in a few seconds, so if some jobs are still found after almost a minute, something is definitely going on.

ps -eo pid,command |
grep [r]esque |
grep "Processing" |
while read PID COMMAND; do
if [[ -d /proc/$PID ]]; then
SECONDS=`expr $(awk -F. '{print $1}' /proc/uptime) - $(expr $(awk '{print $22}' /proc/${PID}/stat) / 100)`

if [ $SECONDS -gt 50 ]; then
kill -9 $PID

QUEUE=`echo "$COMMAND" | cut -d ' ' -f 3`

echo "
The forked child with pid #$PID (queue: $QUEUE) was found stuck for longer than 50 seconds.
It has now been killed and job(s) flagged as failed as a result have been re-enqueued.

You may still want to check the Resque Web UI and the status of the workers for problems.
" | mail -s "Killed stuck Resque job on $(hostname) PID $PID"


I was looking for a nice and easy way to find out how long (in seconds) a process had been running, and the expression you see in the code snippet above was the nicest solution I could find (hat tip to joseph for this).

If any of the Resque processes that are working off jobs are found running for longer than 50 seconds, then these are killed without mercy and a notification is sent to some email address just in case.

First, this way we don’t actually kill Resque workers, but other processes forked by the workers in order to process jobs. This means that the workers remain up and running and soon after they’ll fork new processes to work off some other jobs from the queue(s) they are watching. This is the nicest part, in that you don’t need to manually kill the actual workers and then restart them in order to keep the worker servers going.

Second, killing those processes will cause the jobs that they were processing to fail, so they will appear in Resque’s “failed jobs” queue. The second part of the script takes care of this by running a rake task that re-enqueues all failed jobs and clears the failed jobs queue. For starters, you’ll need to add this rake task to your application. If you are already using Resque, you will likely have a lib/tasks/resque.rake file, otherwise you’ll have to create one (I’m assuming here it’s a Rails application).

In any case, add the following task to that rake file:

desc "Retries the failed jobs and clears the current failed jobs queue at the same time"
task "resque:retry-failed-jobs" => :environment do
(Resque::Failure.count-1).downto(0).each { |i| Resque::Failure.requeue(i) }; Resque::Failure.clear

Back to the script, if it finds and kills any workers that it found stuck, it then proceeds to run the above rake task so to retry the failed jobs:

ps -eo pid,command |
grep [r]esque |
grep "Processing" |
while read PID COMMAND; do
if [[ -d /proc/$PID ]]; then
SECONDS=`expr $(awk -F. '{print $1}' /proc/uptime) - $(expr $(awk '{print $22}' /proc/${PID}/stat) / 100)`

if [ $SECONDS -gt 50 ]; then
touch /tmp/retry-failed-resque-jobs

if [[ -f /tmp/retry-failed-resque-jobs ]]; then
/bin/bash -c 'export rvm_path=/usr/local/rvm && export HOME=/home/deploy && . $rvm_path/scripts/rvm && cd /var/www/sites/dashboard/current/ && /usr/local/bin/rvm rvmrc load && RAILS_ENV=production bundle exec rake resque:retry-failed-jobs'

You may notice that I am forcing the loading of RVM before running the rake task; this is because I need to upgrade some stuff on the worker servers, but you may not need to run the rake task this way.

This is basically it: the script just kills the stuck workers and retries the failed jobs without requiring manual intervention; in almost all cases, I don’t have to worry anymore about them besides wondering whether there’s a design issue that might cause workers to get stuck and that therefore need to be addressed (which is a good reason to keep an eye on the notifications). There might be other monitoring solutions of various types out there, but this simple script is what has been working best for me so far on multiple worker servers with tens of workers.

The final step is to ensure that this script runs frequently so to fix problems as soon as they arise. The script is extremely lightweight, so in my case I just schedule it (with cron) to run every minute on each server.

Know of a better way of achieving the same result? Please do let me know in the comments.

Painless, ultra fast hot backups and restores of MySQL databases with Percona’s XtraBackup

A better alternative to mysqldump?

In the previous post, we’ve seen how to perform backups and restores of MySQL databases using the mysqldump tool bundled with the MySQL server distribution, together with a few tricks that help speed up both backups and restores, among other things.

mysqldump is very likely the most popular tool for backing up MySQL databases, and in most cases it just works, and pretty well too. It’s easy to use, free, comes with MySQL and produces simple text files containing standard DROP/CREATE/INSERT SQL statements that, once replayed during a restore, will simply recreate the databases, the tables and all the data on the destination MySQL server. By producing simple text files based on SQL statements, mysqldump may also be the perfect tool when migrating data between different versions of MySQL, or when you need to change something in the text file dump before restoring it.

However, mysqldump may not be up to the job if you need to back up MySQL databases that you want to keep active without any downtime, and while they are in use for writes as well as reads; for example, when the databases are also replicated and you need to copy them to another server instance to set up a new slave or resync an existing one. In these circumstances, if you resort to using mysqldump anyway you may have to choose between locking all the tables while backing up -thus blocking writes in the meantime, which in some cases may mean breaking applications- and having dumps that may contain inconsistent data. But you unlikely want your users to experience downtime, and in any case you don’t want that your databases may change while your are exporting the data, do you?

Another issue is performance. While mysqldump works great with small databases, it is not efficient with large ones and restoring a SQL dump of a large database can take a very, very long time. With the tricks we’ve seen in the previous post, it is possible to speed up both dumps and restores significantly, but still this would not work well for very large databases. So, unless you are very patient, don’t mind waiting and can afford to stay sitting a week watching your MySQL server while it’s restoring your large db, sooner or later you will have to look for other, more efficient options.

LVM snapshots

Among the other options, there are both commercial and free tools. One popular (free) choice is to use LVM snapshots; they work well when you can use them (for example, you may not be able to use LVM snapshots with virtual private servers, in many cases, unless you are given the possibility to customise the disk layout setup), but they’ve also got their weaknesses; we’ll look at this option more in detail in a future post, however suffice it to say here that LVM snapshots may significantly impact on the disks, and therefore on the performance of the whole server. Plus, LVM snapshots only take into account what MySQL has already flushed to disk at the moment, but not what data it may have in memory, thus restoring from an LVM snapshot may require a crash recovery.

Hot backups!

A better alternative yet is MySQL Enterprise Backup (formerly InnoDB Hot Backup), which can backup a live MySQL server without downtime and at the same time ensure that our backups are consistent even if the databases are in use for writes too during the process. Plus, restores are incredibly fast. Sounds great, yeah? Unfortunately, MySQL Enterprise Backup is a pricey commercial product that may be beyond reach in many cases (5K USD per server), especially for companies with tight budgets that may choose MySQL for the its cost (none) in first place, as well as for its good performance.

But fear not, if you are on the cheap like me: luckily for us, there also exists a free, open source solution by the good people at Percona (a MySQL consultancy company), which is very, very similar to Enterprise Backup/InnoDB Hot Backup. It’s called Xtrabackup, and while it’s still pretty young having been first developed less than a couple years ago, it’s a pretty solid solution that works very well despite some limitations. It also compares well to the commercial alternative in that it only takes a bit longer to perform backups of the same data, and requires a little more disk space – I haven’t had a chance to test this myself yet, so I’ll trust what I’ve read on Taste test: Innobackup vs. Xtrabackup.

Here are the main features available with the current release, from the home page:

  • Create hot InnoDB backups without pausing your database
  • Make incremental backups of MySQL
  • Stream compressed MySQL backups to another server
  • Move tables between MySQL servers online
  • Create new MySQL replication slaves easily
  • Backup MySQL without adding load to the server

While the product itself is free, Percona also provides commercial support, if needed. So, let’s see now how to use Xtrabackup for backing up and restoring MySQL databases.


For starters, you’ll need to install XtraBackup. In this example, we’ll install a Debian package on a Ubuntu server. Head to XtraBackup’s download page first, or download the latest version available (1.4 at the moment of this writing) with wget or similar making sure you choose the right package for your OS.

dpkg -i xtrabackup_1.4-193.lucid.25_amd64.deb
Backing up

The package installs a binary named xtrabackup that takes care of the actual backups and restores, but it also installs a perl script named innobackupex-1.5.1 that makes XtraBackup a bit easier to use, plus it also backs up MyISAM tables. Backing up is pretty simple:

innobackupex-1.5.1 --user=... --password=... --slave-info \
--defaults-file=/etc/mysql/my.cnf --databases="db1 db2" --stream=tar ./ \
| gzip -c -1 > /backups/backup.`date +%Y-%m-%d-%H-%M-%S`.tar.gz

You should see an output similar to this:

This software is published under
the GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2, June 1991.
IMPORTANT: Please check that the backup run completes successfully.
At the end of a successful backup run innobackupex-1.5.1
prints "completed OK!".
innobackupex-1.5.1: Using mysql Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.1.41, for debian-linux-gnu (i486)
using readline 6.1
innobackupex-1.5.1: Using mysql server version Copyright 2000-2008 MySQL, 2008 Sun
Microsystems, Inc.
innobackupex-1.5.1: Created backup directory /backups
101214 21:47:59 innobackupex-1.5.1: Starting mysql with options:
--defaults-file="/etc/mysql/my.cnf" --password=... --user=... --unbuffered --
101214 21:47:59 innobackupex-1.5.1: Connected to database with mysql child process
101214 21:48:03 innobackupex-1.5.1: Connection to database server closed
101214 21:48:03 innobackupex-1.5.1: Starting ibbackup with command: xtrabackup
--defaults-file="/etc/mysql/my.cnf" --backup --suspend-at-end --log-stream
innobackupex-1.5.1: Waiting for ibbackup (pid=17944) to suspend
innobackupex-1.5.1: Suspend file '/var/lib/mysql/xtrabackup_suspended'
xtrabackup: suspend-at-end is enabled.
xtrabackup: uses posix_fadvise().
xtrabackup: cd to /var/lib/mysql
xtrabackup: Target instance is assumed as followings.
xtrabackup: innodb_data_home_dir = ./
xtrabackup: innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend
xtrabackup: innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./
xtrabackup: innodb_log_files_in_group = 2
xtrabackup: innodb_log_file_size = 5242880
xtrabackup: Stream mode.
>> log scanned up to (92295311910)

xtrabackup: Transaction log of lsn (92294278211) to (92298258089) was copied.
101214 22:47:23 innobackupex-1.5.1: All tables unlocked
101214 22:47:23 innobackupex-1.5.1: Connection to database server closed
innobackupex-1.5.1: Backup created in directory '/backups'
innobackupex-1.5.1: MySQL binlog position: filename 'mysql-bin.000730',
position 16838362
innobackupex-1.5.1: MySQL slave binlog position: master host '',
filename 'mysql-bin.000651', position 99728693
innobackupex-1.5.1: You must use -i (--ignore-zeros) option for extraction
of the tar stream.
101214 22:47:23 innobackupex-1.5.1: completed OK!

In this first example, we have instructed XtraBackup to stream the backup data in tar format; the output is then compressed with gzip into a file having the current timestamp in its name. You may have noticed that I am using in the example above gzip’s lowest compression level, this is because higher levels will only require more CPU and resources in general with little improvement, especially if you pipe the compression to XtraBackup while the backup is still in progress; actually I have had often problems with compressing the backup data while the backup is still running; in many cases I found that backing up first, and then compressing the backup once this is done, works better. However the success of compressing while backing up at the same time, also depends -from my experience with the tool- on the value of the wait_timeout system variable in MySQL. On my servers, whenever I have set this variable to a low value I’ve always had problems getting backup and compression to work in one step. There may be better settings or workarounds, but I’ve found that setting wait_timeout to a value higher than the average time taken by the backup process, usually makes for a successful compressed backup without requiring a separate step for the compression. However, keep in mind that a high value for wait_timeout can cause a whole lot of other issues depending on the usage pattern of your MySQL instances.

For this reason, you may want to keep wait_timeout to a not too high value, and only change it for the XtraBackup transaction. You can easily do this by patching the innobackupex-1.5.1 script as suggested by reader “Gu Lei” in a bug somebody filed exactly for the same issue. So edit the file /usr/bin/innobackupex-1.5.1 and change it as follows:

if (compare_versions($mysql_server_version, '4.0.22') == 0
|| compare_versions($mysql_server_version, '4.1.7') == 0) {
# MySQL server version is 4.0.22 or 4.1.7
mysql_send "COMMIT;";
mysql_send "set interactive_timeout=28800;"; # ADD THIS
mysql_send "set wait_timeout=28800;"; # ADD THIS
} else {
# MySQL server version is other than 4.0.22 or 4.1.7
mysql_send "set interactive_timeout=28800;"; # ADD THIS
mysql_send "set wait_timeout=28800;"; # ADD THIS
mysql_send "COMMIT;";

Of course, the timeout value must be enough to cover the amount of time XtraBackup could possibly take to backup your data.

The arguments –slave-info and –databases are optional. The former allows you to save the master status info together with the data (assuming the server you are backing up data from is a master or an existing slave in a replicated environment), in case you are in the process of setting up a new slave, or resyncing an existing one. The latter, instead, allows you to specify which databases you want to backup unless you want to backup all the available databases; it accepts a space separated list of database names. Obviously, if your MySQL configuration file is in another location on your server, remember to change the path in the relevant argument accordingly.

Streaming backups to another MySQL server

The command above works pretty well if you want to make backups manually or if you want to schedule, for example, daily, full backups with cron. However if you are backing up with the purpose of restoring to another server, you may want to skip creating a local file that then needs to be transferred to the destination server for restore. You can stream Xtrabackup‘s output directly to the destination server instead, and create a backup archive there, by using netcat.

Netcat, which we have already met in the previous post on backing up with mysqldump, is a simple yet very useful utility that allows you to stream data over a TCP connection, then you can for example save that data to a file on the destination host. First, let’s get netcat running on the destination host and listening to a port of our choice, for example 6789, and by redirecting the output we’ll store it into a file on disk:

nc -l 6789 > /backups/master-data.tar

Then, on the server that hosts the data we want to migrate:

innobackupex-1.5.1 --user=... --password=... --slave-info \
--defaults-file=/etc/mysql/my.cnf --databases="db1 db2" --stream=tar ./ \
| nc 6789

where is the IP address of the destination host. XtraBackup will take its time depending on the amount of data to transfer, and once the process is completed netcat will be automatically closed on the destination host, with all the data copied into the target file. If all went well, XtraBackup will complete the process on the source host saying:

innobackupex-1.5.1: You must use -i (--ignore-zeros) option
for extraction of the tar stream.
101214 22:47:23 innobackupex-1.5.1: completed OK!

If not, well, you are going to have trouble, of course.


If backing up with XtraBackup was easy, restoring isn’t any more difficult, it just requires a few additional steps vs a single one. First, while on the destination host (we are done on the source host), backup the existing MySQL data folder, if needed, and then delete or rename it, so that we can create a new empty data folder in the same location which will contain the restored data.

service mysql stop # you need to shut down MySQL before restoring
mv /var/lib/mysql /var/lib/mysql.bak && mkdir /var/lib/mysql

Next, extract the tar archive created while streaming the data during the backup, into the new MySQL data folder. As XtraBackup reminds us at the end of the backup process, we need to use the –ignore-zeros option (or -i) when untarring. Also remember to use the option -z as well if you are restoring from a gzipped tarball – here, for example’s sake, I am assuming you have used netcat instead.

cd /var/lib/mysql && tar xfvi /backups/master-data.tar

Unless something is wrong with the archive for some reason, you should now have a new MySQL data folder identical to that on the source host at the moment the backup was performed. Only thing, this data folder is not ready yet for use with MySQL but needs to be “prepared” first to apply the changes that have been captured by XtraBackup in the transactional logs during backup. Once this is done, fix the permissions and start MySQL again:

cd /var/lib/mysql && innobackupex-1.5.1 --apply-log --ibbackup=xtrabackup_51 \
./ && chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql

service mysql start

If all went well so far, MySQL should start correctly with the restored database(s).

Setting up the new/updated instance as replication slave

Assuming now you want to use this new server as a slave of the instance you have backed data from, and know how to set up the replication (we’ll look at how to do this in another post) or that this instance already was a slave and you just need to resync it, you will have to update the information that MySQL uses to connect to the master and replicate data. If you used the option –slave-info with XtraBackup during the backup, like in my example, in the new data folder you should also see some additional files that will contain exactly this information.

Nothing complicated here… but you need to be careful as to which file you should look at. You have two possibilities here:

Scenario 1 – You are cloning an existing slave

That is, you are adding a new slave. Let’s call the host you previously backed the data from Slave-0. Slave-0 itself was already configured as slave of another MySQL server instance, its master, that we’ll call …Master. Right now you basically want to “clone” Slave-0. That is, you want to add a new slave to Master. Let’s call this new slave Slave-1. So, to recap, both Slave-0 AND the new Slave-1 will in the end be replicating from the same Master, while there won’t be any link between Slave-0 and Slave-1. Hope this is clear! 🙂

If this is what you are trying to do here, the file you need to look at is xtrabackup_slave_info. If you look at the content of this file,

cat /var/lib/mysql/xtrabackup_slave_info

you’ll see that it already has a “CHANGE MASTER..” command ready for you to use. So open a MySQL console, and just execute that command:

mysql> stop slave;
#optional IF this instance was already a slave AND MySQL IS configured
without the skip-slave-start OPTION
mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_LOG_FILE='mysql-bin.000834',

If everything was OK, you’ll see something like this:

Slave_IO_Running: Yes
Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
Seconds_Behind_Master: 1643

Seconds_Behind_Master is an estimation (not too accurate, I must say) of the time in second it will take for this new slave to catch up with the master. How long it takes depends on how long before the backup you’ve used to build this slave was taken from the existing slave you have cloned, and on how much data has changed in the meantime on the master.

Update Tue, May 17 2011: As reader Mora points out in the comment, this definition of Seconds_Behind_Master is not correct.

Seconds_Behind_Master is how many seconds the slave is behind the master. It is not an estimation of how long its going to take to catch up, if the slave has been stopped for 1hour, it would be 3600seconds behind, but it can take anywhere from a few seconds, to a few days (or more) to catch up.

Thanks to Mora for the clarification.

Note: you may have noticed that the file containing the information about the master, only contains the name and position of the master’s binary log file in use at the moment the backup was taken; there is no username, or password. This is because credentials are not saved there for obvious reasons. So unless you have added values for MASTER_HOST, MASTER_USER and MASTER_PASSWORD to your my.cnf file, you may need to add these settings to the “CHANGE MASTER..” command above.
Scenario 2 – You are setting up a new slave, or resyncing an existing slave having as master the MySQL instance you’ve backed data from in the previous steps
In this second scenario, instead, say that

  • you want to use the MySQL server instance you previously backed your data from, as master in a typical replication; let’s call this instance Master;
  • you want to use the new instance you are currently setting up from that backup, as Slave. Or, the master-slave replication between these two already existed but you need to resync this slave.
    If this is what you are trying to do, the file you need to look at is xtrabackup_binlog_info instead. If you look at the content of this file,
cat /var/lib/mysql/xtrabackup_binlog_info
mysql-bin.000228 56875717

you’ll see something slightly different to what the other file contains. The first value is the name of the binary log file on the master, which you need to attach this slave to; the second value is instead the position within that binary log from which MySQL has to start catching up with changes from the master. Optionally, you may also see a third value being the list of names of the databases excluded from the replication.

Now you can use this information to update the link with the master. Start a MySQL console and enter the following commands to do this, then start the slave:

MASTER_PASSWORD='...', MASTER_LOG_FILE='mysql-bin.000228',

Also in this case, you’ll have to enter the username and password you are using for the replication process, and be careful to enter the log file name and position correctly, according to your xtrabackup_binlog_info file.

Finally, if all worked as expected, you should see:

Slave_IO_Running: Yes
Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
Seconds_Behind_Master: 2184

Cool, you’re done.

I am pretty sure you’ll see right away – as soon as you try XtraBackup – the huge benefits of this alternative vs mysqldump. Make sure, though, you test backups and restores enough before using this system in production!

Know of any other tips related to XtraBackup, or of a similar or even better alternative (still free)? Please share them in the comments!

Smarter, faster backups and restores of MySQL databases using mysqldump – and other useful tips


This is the first part of a mini series that will cover various topics related to MySQL administration, as well as several tips and tricks on using MySQL in our applications. It will be a way for me to finally reorganize some notes in a more readable format, and at the same time it will be a good chance to share these notes, hoping you also find them useful! In this first part, I thought I’d put together some sort of “reference” on how to use mysqldump for backups, how to restore these dumps, and pretty many cool tricks in between.

If you work with MySQL at any level, chances are you may need to backup your databases occasionally or on a regular basis. MySQL is a great RDBMS: it performs very well in most scenarios, has got all you need for most applications, and it’s free (and hopefully will remain so), coming bundled with a number of useful tools and utilities, also free.

But one thing about MySQL that has always disappointed me, though, is that while there is a choice of free tools for backing up databases, the tools that come bundled with MySQL server for this purpose aren’t really great. Absolutely the most popular one among these is mysqldump, as it’s very easy to use, and performs backups by producing simple text files containing DROP/CREATE/INSERT SQL statements; once replayed on the destination MySQL instance, these statements will recreate all the databases, tables and data. mysqldump can also create dumps in other formats such as CSV and XML, however SQL is the most used format.

I am not a particularly passionate fan of mysqldump, as I prefer using alternative tools that are also free and that perform dramatically better than mysqldump in a number of cases. One of the main reasons though, why I don’t like mysqldump too much and try to avoid using it whenever I can, is performance. mysqldump works just fine with small databases, but it can be a terrible pain with large or very large databases, especially if you are so unlucky to have to restore one! Pick any database with tables containing more than a few million rows, and try restoring it. Unless you are very patient and are not in rush, it is likely that it’ll take longer than you think would be reasonable, and perhaps you’ll give up and look for something else.

However, mysqldump is, still, the only backup tool that most MySQL users know and use, and it’s available wherever MySQL is. Also, at times a plain SQL-based backup may be useful, as it can often be restored more easily to a different version of MySQL without particular difficulties.

So, here are a few useful tips that can help you save some time when backing up MySQL databases with mysqldump, and restoring any of these dumps, plus some nice tips.

First, the basics…

Backups, or “dumps”, are extremely easy to create with mysqldump. Here are a few examples:

# Backup a single database
# NOTE: you can also use the shortcuts -u and -p to specify username and password
mysqldump --user=... --password=... your_database_name > your_database_name.sql

# Backup multiple databases:
mysqldump --user=... --password=... --databases db1 db2 > backup.sql

# or all the databases in one shot:
mysqldump --user=... --password=... --all-databases > backup.sql

# Optionally, it's easy to compress the backup, for example with gzip:
mysqldump --user=... --password=... your_database_name \
| gzip > your_database_name.sql

# And, if your database also has other objects (apart from tables) such as functions,
# views, and stored procedures, you can back them up too with --routines:

mysqldump --user=... --password=... --routines \
your_database_name > your_database_name.sql

# It may also be useful to include a timestamp in the target file name, so to know
# right away when a backup was taken:

mysqldump --user=... --password=... \
your_database_name > "your_database_name-$(date +%Y-%m-%d-%H.%M.%S).sql"

# If you are backing up data with the purpose of restoring it to an instance you want
# to use as replication slave, then the option --master-data is handy as it adds to
# the dump the information needed to configure the connection with the
# replication master:

mysqldump --user=... --password=... --all-databases --master-data > backup.sql

Restoring is pretty simple too. Usually it is done this way:

mysql -u.. -p... db_name < db_name.sql

The command above is very similar to the previous one, but here we tell MySQL client to import and replay the SQL statements contained in our backup file (or dump). As we’ll see later in this post, there are also smarter ways of backing up and restoring dumps created with mysqldump, that would work better in some cases.

Speeding things up


With the most recent versions of MySQL commonly in use these days, the single most useful option available with mysqldump is –opt. This option is actually a sort of shortcut for a group of other options; among these, there are a few ones that can help speed up backups, but also -more importantly- restores.

Update: it looks like the –opt option is now switched on by default on the latest versions of MySQL, so the following details are for reference in case you use a very recent version (and you should!).

These options are:


Affects restores: this option ensures that each table is locked while restoring, so to allow dropping and recreating the tables. At the same time, because a table remains locked to other transactions while restoring the data, inserts happen more quickly, therefore reducing the time taken to restore the content of the table.


Affects restores: makes the creation of a table quicker by merging into the CREATE TABLE statement anything that has to do with defining the structure of the table.


Affects restores: it helps when restoring databases using MyISAM as storage engine. Delays the creation of the indexes for a table until all the data in that table has been restored. This results in an overall faster restore of the table vs updating indexes while restoring the data.


Affects both dumps and restores: this can speed up A LOT restores, as it produces in the final SQL dump INSERT commands with multiple sets of values, resulting in the insertion of multiple rows at once. As a side benefit vs having a separate INSERT statement for each row, the resulting SQL dump will also be smaller, taking up less storage space.


Affects dumps: improves dumping of MyISAM tables, by locking all the tables during the dump.

Affects dumps: when dumping large tables, this option prevents buffering the whole tables before dumping them to the backup file. Instead, rows are fetched and dumped right away to file, resulting in an overall faster and lighter dump thanks to reduced load on the system.


As I’ve just suggested, the –opt argument also helps with speeding up restores. However there’s another trick that I use whenever I need to restore a dump, as it can save a lot of time. When a dump is being restored, I simply disable a number of checks that MySQL has to perform to ensure the integrity of the data, with foreign keys and more, and then I enable these again soon after the data has been completely restored.

One problem is that if the dump file I need to restore are pretty large, it’s not a good idea to edit the content of the file to make these changes. So.. cat to the rescue!

I basically use cat to produce a new string output containing the changes I just described plus the content of the original dump file, and then I stream this output directly to the target MySQL instance for restore:

cat dump.sql
echo "COMMIT;"
) | mysql -u... -p... target_database

Believe me, I would never want to restore a large database without this trick! Another tip that I’d like to suggest is having a shell function ready to use so you won’t have to type this command whenever needed. For example:


function restore() {
echo $1;
cat "$1.sql"
echo "COMMIT;"
) | mysql -u"$MYSQL_USER" -p"$MYSQL_PASSWORD" "$1"

You can then use this function this way:

restore db_name

Which expects there’s a file named db_name.sql.
The above is just an example. As we’ll see later, you may want to add this shortcut to another shell function I am suggesting in the section “Other useful tips”.

Working with remote hosts

When you work with different environments (such as development, testing, staging, quality assurance, production, etc.), you most likely have to deal with different hosts, often located in different data centres, perhaps in different geographical regions and far away from each other. In these cases, it may be difficult to transfer MySQL dumps from an environment to another, and then restore them to different server instances. This is especially true if the connection available between the two ends is not speedy, or if the database dumps -even if compressed- are too large.

In such cases, instead of dumping databases to files, migrating these files to a different host over the Internet or other connection, and restoring the data to the target host, it is possible to skip the intermediate step and restore directly to the target host while the data is still being backed up. This is called streaming, and can be done in various ways.

Between hosts sharing the same network / between two MySQL instances on the same host / between two hosts with no firewall restrictions

The most straight forward scenario is when the source MySQL instance and the target instance share either the same host or at least the same network, or they are even in different networks and hosts but are allowed to communicate directly with each other. That is, there are no firewall rules forbidding this point-to-point communication. In these cases, you can dump data from an instance and restore it to the other instance while the dump is still being performed:

mysqldump --u... -p... --opt source_db \
| mysql -u... -p.... --host=target_host target_db
With SSH

When direct communication between the hosts is forbidden, or when the data is sensitive and you need encryption, you can use SSH. In the following example, a database is being restored directly from a remote host to a local instance:

ssh user@remote_host mysqldump -u... -p... --opt source-db \
| mysql -u... -p... target_db

Similarly, if you want to restore a local database to a remote host:

mysqldump -u... -p... source-db \
| ssh user@remote_host mysql -u... -p... --opt target_db

If you, instead, only want to dump a remote database locally, or dump a local database to a remote file system:

# dumping remote => local
ssh user@remote_host 'mysqldump -u... -p... dbname \
| gzip' > backup-`date +%Y-%m-%d`.sql.gz

# dumping local => remote
mysqldump -u... -p... dbname | gzip \
| ssh user@remote_host "cat > backup-`date +%Y-%m-%d`.sql.gz"
With netcat

I wanted to mention a third option that uses netcat and that perhaps is not very popular, but that I like a lot and works really well when there are no firewall restrictions between source and target MySQL instances. I wouldn’t use this technique when I need to transfer sensitive data as it does not use encryption as SSH does, however whenever this is not an issue transferring data this way can be a lot speedier, especially if I need to transfer really large databases!

Between SSH and netcat, it is perhaps more correct to talk about streaming if the tool in use is netcat. So it requires two simple steps. First, we need to tell netcat to listen on a custom port -for example 4567- on the target host, and to save the data it will receive from the source host to a local file:

nc -l 4567 > backup.sql.gz

As you can see, I’ve appended the extension .sql.gz to the file’s name. This is because netcat will be receiving compressed data, as we have seen in other examples. Next, we’ll execute mysqldump on the source host, and stream it output -compressed- to the target host:

mysqldump -u... -p... --opt dbname | gzip | nc -w1 target_host_ip_or_hostname 4567

One cool thing is that netcat will automatically stop listening, and will close the target dump file, as soon as the dump is completed and therefore the streaming is stopped.

Other useful tips

Exporting only the schema, not the data

If you want to quickly create a database having the same schema as an existing database, you can dump only the schema, but not the data, from the existing one and then restore the dump as usual:

mysqldump -u... -p... --no-data dbname > dbname.sql
Dumping one or multiple databases and automatically deleting dumps older than X days

If you backup your database(s) regularly, for example with a cron job, you may want to keep an eye on the disk space used by backups. It is easy to automatically delete backups older than X days, as follows:

mysqldump ... && find /backup-location/* -mtime +15 -exec rm {} \;

In the example above, we dump the databases first (I have omitted arguments for mysqldump as these will depend on your backup needs), then we find and delete backups older than 15 days.

Dumping multiple databases, but to separate files

As we’ve seen in the second section, the option –all-databases gives you the possibility to backup all the databases available. However, the databases will all be backed up to the same dump file, so sometimes you may prefer having a separate dump for each database. This can be useful in the case you need to restore one database, but need to leave the other ones alone. First, we need to find out which databases are available, and perhaps exclude some of them from the backup. Say, for instance, that you want to backup all the databases but mysql, information_schema. First, we list all the databases with

mysql -u... -p... -e "show databases;"

You should see something similar to this:

| Database |
| information_schema |
| database1 |
| database2 |
| mysql |

We need to manipulate this output a little bit, so that we can extract from it just the database names, filtering out all the other characters that are not needed:

mysql -u... -p... -e "show databases;" | tr -d "| "

Which produces:


Almost there. We now want to remove the Database heading, and also exclude the databases mysql and information_schema, as per the example (unless you want to back them up too):

mysql -u... -p... -e "show databases;" \
| tr -d "| " \
| egrep -v "(Database|mysql|information_schema)"

Here we are:


We now have the clean list of the names of the databases we want to backup to separate files. All we have to do is chain this command with a simple loop that will execute mysqldump for each database:

for db in \
`mysql -u... -p... -e "show databases;" \
| tr -d "| " \
| egrep -v "(Database|mysql|information_schema)"`; \
do mysqldump -u... -p... --opt --routines --databases $db > "$db.sql"; done

By executing the command above, you will create as many .sql dump files as the number of databases you have backed up.

Restoring from multiple dumps

If you dump each database to a different file, you can restore all these databases -should you need to restore all of them- this way:

for file in `ls *.sql`; do echo $file && mysql -u... -p... \
"`echo $file | sed "s/\.sql//"`" < $file; done

Note: Some frameworks, such as Rails and -usually- others based on Ruby, encourage using a different database for each environment, for a number of reasons. Convention wants that these databases be named after the environment, for example: blog_development, blog_test, and blog_production. Sometimes you may need to restore, for example, production databases to a development environment, perhaps to test some new code on live data. How would you do this, if you have backed up the production databases to separate files as described in the previous tip? In this case, your dumps would be named like dbX_production.sql (or something similar), while your development databases -provided they already exist and that you want to overwrite them with production data- would be named like dbX_development.

You can restore all the databases from the dumps with one command as follows:

for file in `ls *.sql`; do echo $file && sed "s/production/development/" $file \
| mysql -u... -p... "`echo $file | sed "s/production/development/" \
| sed "s/\.sql//"`" ; done

In the example above, we use sed to replace the “production” with “development”. So, for example the dump named db_production.sql would be restored to the database db_development without having to rename files, which can be useful if you want somehow to automate these commands.

Shell shortcuts

As I need often these commands and others, I find it useful to create some bash aliases and functions (as I usually use bash as shell), so to save some typing. I usually add to my bash profile these lines:


mysql() {
case $1 in
alldbs ) mysql -u"$MYSQL_USER" -p"$MYSQL_PASSWORD" -e "show databases;" \
| egrep -v "(Database|mysql|information_schema)" ;;
backup ) <commands seen in previous section> ;;
restore ) <commands seen in previous section> ;;
* ) eval '`which mysql` -u"$MYSQL_USER" -p"$MYSQL_PASSWORD" $@';;

# usage:
# mysql alldbs => to list the available databases
# mysql backup => to dump all the databases
# and so on...

So I just add to that function as many shortcuts as I need for the commands that I use most often. Of course, if you create such shortcuts in a production environment that can be accessed by others, or just for improved security, you may want to avoid adding your credentials in the bash profile.

…and One More Thing

In these pages I am sharing with you several useful tips on mysqldump, but hold on! As promised in the introduction this is only part of a sort of mini series on MySQL, and certainly not the last on backing up and restoring MySQL data.

As I’ve already mentioned, I only use mysqldump with small databases, while with large databases or with more complex setups (replication to name one), I prefer using other tools.

I will publish pretty soon another post describing these tools, and how to use them in those more complex setups where mysqldump, simply put, may not be enough.

So, stay tuned! In the meantime, if you find this sort of mini “reference” on mysqldump & co. useful, don’t forget to subscribe to my feed and to share with others!